Pax Mongolica (Latin for Mongol peace) is a term used to describe the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire under the reign of Genghis Khan, beginning in the 13th century. This may be surprising, considering his brutal reputation as a cruel and heartless conqueror.
More and more people were incorporated into the Mongolian tribe under his rule due to his many conquests, and this had the effect of diversifying the societal balance within the tribe. By 1206, Genghis Khan's military expansion had unified the tribes of Mongolia, and in the same year he was elected and acclaimed as the leader of Mongolia.
The Mongolian empire stretched from Shanhaiguan in the east to Budapest in the west; from Rus' in the north to Tibet in the south. This united a large part of the continent under one political authority and resulted in safe trade routes for merchants. It also led to an overall growth and expansion of trade from China in the east to Britain in the west.
The code of Mongol law, known as the Yassa, helped suppress tribal feuding and war, thus helping to ensure a peaceful environment for all in the Mongol Empire. The Black Death was largely responsible for the demise of the Mongol Empire.
Wireless networks are everywhere these days. Coffee shops offer access, libraries offer access, shopping malls offer access, not to mention that most homes and businesses have a WiFi network or two deployed.
The problem with WiFi is that it does not respect boundaries the way us humans do, and the wireless signal tends to spill over into surrounding areas. If the security on the wireless network is not strong enough, this spillage will allow people nearby to use the wireless connection.
In the early days of WiFi, and before people really paid too much attention to security, there was a practice called "Wardriving" where folks would drive around neighbourhoods with WiFi scanners looking for insecure networks. The term is an adaption of the old "Wardialing" from the 1980's, where one would dial random phone numbers looking for a modem to hack into.
A subsequent evolution of the Wardriving concept is now called Warchalking, and is the practice of marking the status of a WiFi network on the surrounding buildings, pavements or lamp posts. The markings, originally done in chalk – hence the name – alert others to the network name, bandwidth and security level of the WiFi signal spilling over.
So, if you happen to see a warchalk symbol outside your house or office, you should probably check your WiFi network security otherwise you might be unwittingly sponsoring Internet access to passers by.
Most of us simply scroll down to the "Agree" button, click and carry on, and there's a good reason for this. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon recently conducted a study to see how long it would take the average person to read just the privacy policies they were presented with when visiting websites.
Of course, no one has that sort of time to spend reading dry documents like these, and that might just be the point.
In 1990, a group of researchers dated the remains of some dwarf mammoths that had been discovered on Wrangle Island. The researchers were able to place the remains in the time period of 7390-4740 BP, about 5000 years after the last known date of mammoths on the Eurasian continent.
This discovery was remarkable not only because of the date, but because the scientists were able to track the evolution of these mammals on the island. These mammoths survived so much longer that they were actually on earth during the time of the building of the pyramids.
The reason these particular mammoths were able to survive was that the environmental conditions on Wrangle Island during that time were suitable for mammoths to live in. Wrangle Island is located in the northeast corner of Siberia.
Selenium is a naturally occurring element with a periodic number of 34. It was discovered in 1817 and is found impurely in metal sulfide ores.
Selenium has an interesting property that most elements do not have called photoconductivity. Photoconductivity is a phenomenon where a substance actually becomes more conductive when visible light is shown on it!
Not only does Selenium become more conductive when light is shown on it, but it is actually an insulator when there is not light on it!
Selenium is mostly used in glass production, with over 50% of its consumption used in giving glass a red color after the selenium is added.
For all the Doctor Who fans out there, I cannot help but wonder if the "Weeping Angels," a reoccurring foe of the doctor that can only move when they are not seen, aren't made of some other element that has an anti-photoconductivity phenomenon!